[p.282]

Unknown early 17th Century artist, Our Lady of Mount Carmel, Mount Carmel Basilica, Valletta

[p.284] Valentine Borg Gusman

MARIAN DEVOTION IN THE MALTESE CARMELITE PROVINCE

DURING THE 17th AND 18th CENTURIES*

Devotion to Our Lady is one of the outstanding characteristics of the Carmelite Order. Founded in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary,[1] its Marian devotion has grown over the centuries. But the central idea has never changed, and may be expressed by a single phrase: the Carmelite must be "totally Marian".[2] This virtually means that the members of this Order must have a singular and ardent devotion to Our Lady. Besides contemplation and apostolate or activity. the Marian cult is a constituent element of the true Carmelite life.[3] Moreover, this Marian stamp is the most striking influence Carmel has had on the Church, as may be attested even from recent Papal documents.[4]

No wonder, therefore, that the Marian Carmelites of the 17th and 18th centuries had left no stone unturned to spread and ever-increase the devo-[p.285]-tion of the Blessed Virgin Mary in our Islands. Following in the footsteps of their fellow-countrymen, they showed their devotion towards Mary with the erection of new churches and chapels in her honour, with the solemn celebration of feasts under various Marian titles. with the enrolment of the faithful in the Carmelite Third Order and in Marian Confraternities and with other devotional practices.[5]

This we intend to demonstrate in the present brief outline of the Maltese Carmelites' devotion to Our Lady during the period under consideration. Certainly, there will be gaps to be filled by later writers, because the material we have had in hand has not been very abundant. Many documents are lost or lie discarded and worm-eaten in some Sicilian convents and other places where they were transferred, when the Carmelite Province of St Angelo, our mother Province till 1819, came to an end.

ERECTION OF NEW CHURCHES DEDICATED TO OUR LADY

In 1418, the executors of Donna Margherita, widow of Giacomo di Pellegrino, a scion of the Royal Family of Aragon, bequeatehd to the Carmelites the church of the Annunciation, which she had built in the district of St Leonard, outside Rabat (Malta). The coming over to Malta of Sicilian Carmelites to take possession of this church, marks the origin of the first Carmelite Community in our Islands.[6]

In Western Christianity, the Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel dedicated their new churches to the Blessed Virgin Mary in imitation of their first chapel on Carmel.[7] The deep religious feelings of the Maltese Carmelites to Our Lady made them erect other churches in her honour and adorn them with paintings and statues of her. As a matter of fact, during the 17th and 18th centuries, they built three new churches and almost reconstructed the old one, giving them all Marian titles. They were situated in Valletta, Vittoriosa, Mdina and Rabat respectively.

THE CARMELITE CHURCH OF VALLETTA

Following the Great Siege of 1565, a new city was built in Malta named Valletta after its founder, Grand Master Jean Parisot de la Valette. Under his successor, Grand Master Pietro del Monte, land was let for construction. Availing themselves of this opportunity, the Carmelites acquired 396 sq. canes to build a church and a Priory.[8]

It was the year 1570. On the design of the famous Maltese architect [p.286] Girolamo Cassar, work started immediately on the new church. At first a small chapel was erected for the spiritual relief and assistance of the inhabitants. It was dedicated to the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. If available information is correct, it served for some time as the first parish church of Valletta.[9] However, when thirty eight years later the entire stonework of the church was completed and the main altar put in its place,[10] an astonishing fact did happen. The Marian name assigned to the Church was that of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and not of the Annunciation. An artistic and devout painting of Our Lady's vision to St Simon Stock was hung over the main altar. Either this same picture or another of almost the same age became afterwards so prodigious, that it was solemnly clowned by the Vatican Chapter ,on July 15, 1881.[11]

The devotion of the Brown Scapular of Carmel struck a sympathetic cord in the post-Tridentine Church and fitted the mood of a conscious and orthodox use of indulgences in reaction to the Lutheran attack. Together with that of the Rosary, it became the most widespread Marian devotion in the Church.[12] Besides Spain and Portugal, it was especially popular in Italy and in a particular way in Sicily, whence the Maltese Carmelite Province originated.[13] This seems to be the very reason why the Maltese Carmelites dedicated their Valletta church to Our Lady of Mount Carmel, which later became a Sanctuary and a Basilica.[14]

Lest the long fostered devotion to the Annunciation would fall into oblivion, reasonably these Friars dedicated to it one of the chapels of their new church. During the 17th century, it was juspatronatus of the Cagliola family. In fact, in 1665, one of the descendants of that family left a bequest of twelve annual scudi to the Carmelites of Valletta for religious services to be held in this chapel which he claimed to be his: "nella cappella che ho in loro Chiesa".[15]

All the other chapels of the church but two,[16] were given Marian titles, namely:

[p.287] Our Lady of Good Health;[17] The first picture of this Madonna was removed from that chapel in 1673 and a new one, painted by Daniel Monteleoni, was placed therein. An inscription on the same picture reads: "Daniello Monteleoni Pingebat 1673”.[18]

Our Lady of Graces Although the altar of this chapel was taken away during the Priorate of Fr Maxim Balzan, in the second half of the 18th century, the picture was still in its place.[19]

The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary This chapel was never given as juspatronatus to anyone. Its Marian title survived till 1730. Afterwards, it was dedicated to St. Elias.[20]

Our Lady of Itria[21] Later it was also known as Our Lady of Light, because a picture of this Madonna was placed in the same chapel some time later.[22]

Our Lady of Pilar[23] Later, this chapel had a second name, too. It bore the title of Our Lady of Ransom on account of a painting placed on this altar presented by an Aragonese Knight of St John, Fra D. Tiburtius Dolz.[24]

Our Lady of Loreto.[25] The Carmelites enthused this particular devotion, especially because in 1489, they were entrusted with the custody of the Holy House of Loreto. This was believed to be the house in which the Saviour and his Mother had lived at Nazareth and which had been mira-[p.288]-culously transferred from Palestine.[26] This chapel has always remained within the Friars' competence and was never allotted as juspatronatus to anyone.[27]

THE CARMELITE CHURCH OF VITTORIOSA

In 1611, another Carmelite Priory was founded along the strand of Vittoriosa, The Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel succeeded in setting foot in that city through their Third Order Secular. As a matter of fact, as since many female Tertiaries pleaded difficulty in going early in the morning to Valletta to implement their Order's sacramental commitments, the Bishop of Malta Fra Thomas Gargallo, on the 17th September 1582, offered the Carmelite Father: the church of Our Lady of Monserrat.[28] They did not hesitate to accept the offer with pleasure and sent two of their priests, Fr Guy Campanula. and Fr George Moniglia, to administer it. They were well received by the inhabitants and especially by the seafarers. Since the church was along the strand, it was very handy and convenient to officers and sailors of the galleys.[29]

For some unknown reason, after almost thirty years, they abandoned that church and built a new one together with a convent, the director and promoter of this enterprise was Fr Ascanius Minicucci. Following their Valletta confreres, they dedicated both of them to Our Lady of Mount Carmel. The erection of the two edifices was made financially possible especially by the money contributions of the seafaring men of the Order's galleys.[30] However, one cannot leave unmentioned a rich owner of Senglea, Master Michael Grech, who donated to the Carmelites for this purpose a block of houses along the seafront of Vittoriosa.[31]

Unfortunately, both the church and the convent short lived their existence. They had to close down by a Papal decree of October 15, 1652, because of the very small number of Friars housed therein.[32] A bigger community could not be supported by their income.[33] Consequently, on the 11th October 1653, the Prior Fr Dionysius Maldonato handed his resignation to the Bishop, Fra Michael John Balaguer da Camarasa,[34] and the revenue was transferred to the newly built Oratory of St Philip Neri in Vittoriosa.[35]

More than once the Carmelites, helped by the Bishop and by the clergy and the people of Vittoriosa, tried to revive that community, but were faced with several obstacles and had to give way.[36] At present, the Mal-[p.289]-tese Franciscan Sisters of Egypt are in charge of these two Carmelite foundations.

THE CARMELITE CHURCH IN MALTA

Having lost their priory in Vittoriosa, and since Carmelite vocations were on the increase,[37] some other abode was a must for the Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. On the other hand, it was indeed difficult to spread and increase the devotion to the Virgin Mary among the faithful, distant as they were, in the depopulated district of St Leonard, outside Rabat. So they thought it wise to ask Bishop Balaguer permission to build a convent and a church in Mdina. He complied with their wish and, for the time being, gave them the old chapel of the Madonna della Rocca to serve their purpose, on condition that they would dedicate one of the altars of their new church to Our Lady under this title.[38]

They took possession of that chapel on the 6th May 1659, and about a month later (16th June), they housed themselves in the Old City. Finding themselves well respected, they decided to move out of their newly-built unhealthy convent outside Rabat,[39] and reside permanently in Mdina.

Soon they started to work on the project of their new church, the plans of which were drawn by the architect Francis Sammut. In 1666, they succeeded in getting a Brief from Pope Alexander VII wherein permission was granted them to transfer all endowments and pious burthens of their old church in Rabat to the new one under construction.[40] Within twelve years, the church was ready and work was then shifted to the Priory's construction next to the church.[41]

Taking into consideration that it was only a transfer of the church from one place into another, the Mdina Carmelites were right to give their new church the Marian title of the old one, namely the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The titular painting is one of the masterpieces of Stephen Erardi. It was done in 1677 at a cost of forty onze.[42] A gilded silver crown which stood on Mary's head, as well as a gold and pearl brooch and earrings decorating her appearance, were torn out of the picture and robbed by the French in 1798, the day after the feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in Mdina.[43] Repairs and retouches were entrusted to Anthony Portelli, who completed this delicate work four years later (1802), although scratches remain still visible.[44]

The same lot fell to Our Lady's picture of Mount Carmel hanging in the chapel bearing that same title. Painted by the Calabrese Mattia Preti around the year 1694, the picture was paid for by Dr Calcerano Mampalao Apap, in whose cars is this chapel.[45] All the jewellery on Mary's head [p.290] and figure were stolen by the French and the canvas itself was damaged. These were also repaired by the aforesaid Portelli.[46] Fortunately, however, the picture of 1612, which was brought from the old church and stood in the chapel of Our Lady of Mount Carmel for almost a quarter of a century (1670-1694)[47] was untouched. It can still be seen in the small hall outside the choir.

Two other chapels dedicated to Our Lady are those of the Addolorata and of the Madonna Bella Rocca. The latter bears the name stipulated in Bishop Balaguer's grant to the Carmelites of their first chapel in Mdina. Notwithstanding its curious title 'della Rocca', the Nativity of Our Lady has always been venerated under that name.[48] Its picture, painted on wood, was mentioned in both Mgr Duzina and Mgr Balaguer's visits of 1575 and 1656, respectively. It was then said to be very old.[49]

A real gem of architecture, the Carmelite church of iMdina made itself known in history on more than one occasion. As a matter of fact, for nine whole years (11/1/1693-8/10/1702), it served as a substitute to the Cathedral for all religious services, when the latter was almost totally destroyed by an earthquake, which shook the Island in 1693.[50] Moreover, on the feast of St Paul in 1679, the ceremony of the solemn entry of Grand Master Perellos took place therein.[51] Finally, on the 2nd September 1798, it was the spark that caused the fire for the insurrection of the Maltese against their temporal rulers, the French. The sacrilegious sale of the tapestry of that church was the last straw, causing even the death of the French Commander-in-Chief Masson.[52]

THE CARMELITE CHURCH OUTSIDE, RABAT (MALTA)

After their transfer to Mdina, the Carmelite Friars continued to minister to the needs of their first church at St Leonard's in Rabat. Mass continued to be celebrated on all Sundays and feastdays of obligation.[53]

Its maintenance required serious attention. Small repairs tried to remedy eventual great damages to the building. In 1672, a thorough general repair of this edifice was taken in hand. An outside wall was built to strengthen the whole structure, while its roof was also attended to.[54] However, during the following forty years, its damages had reached such a stage, that the Friars decided to stop spending any more money on its maintenance and approved a general plan whereby the reconstruction of the whole building would result. Master mason Alphonse Taliana was entrusted with this work and a contract to this effect was stipulated in 1713 and recorded by Notary Giovanni Grech. By May 14, 1714, the stone work was ready. Paul Portelli whitewashed the church and a month later, its formal blessing and official opening for the public took place.

The adjustments were so considerable, that the church was reckoned [p.291] to be almost new. Even its main door and that of the sacristy were both newly made.[55]

SOLEMN CELEBRATION OF FEASTS OF OUR LADY

A second external manifestation of the Maltese Carmelites' devotion towards Mary, during the 17th and 18th centuries, was their solemn celebration of feasts in her honour. Among these feasts, the most conspicuous were those of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and of the Annunciation.

FEASTS OF OUR LADY OF MOUNT CCARMEL

In 1606, Paul V enriched the Confraternity of Our Lady of Mount Carmel with many indulgences and placed its patronal feast on July 16.[56] Three years later (1609), the General Chapter of the Carmelite Order chose July 16 as the principal feast of the whole Order.[57] A monthly procession in honour of Our Lady of Mount Carmel had been already prescribed by the decrees of the General 'Chapter of 1593.[58] It had to take place on a Sunday in each of the convents were the Confraternity of the Brown Scapular was instituted.[59]

The Maltese Carmelites of the district of St Leonard, outside Rabat (Malta), held that procession on the third Sunday of the month. In 1612, it was already being held. Nevertheless, although it had just then been introduced, its popularity was immediately remarkable. Devotees from all over Mdina, Rabat and the neighbouring villages and hamlets participated.[60]

Unfortunately, little can be said regarding the feast of July 16 among the Friars of that Community. Information is lacking, and the only thing we know for certain is that the feast was celebrated by them.[61] Probably, it was for the solemn celebration of this feast, that they acquired, in 1612, a painting of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, paying for it "onzi 9 e tari 24".[62] A year later, (1613), the chapel of Our Lady of Mount Carmel was duly decorated.[63]

On the contrary, information is very abundant on the solemn procession of July 16 held by the Carmelites at Valletta. It was the first procession ever to take place there. In 1622, when the city was still under construction, it was at first a short procession. Later, however, it developed into one of the most famous and popular processions in Malta. Besides being the main one in Valletta,[64] it was perhaps the longest procession. A document of July 14, 1828, enlists the following streets through which it used to pass: Old Mint, St Mark, Old Bakery, St John, Merchants, St Chris-[p.292]-topher, Kingsway, (today's Republic Street), and Old Theatre. All the different Religious Orders in Valletta used to take part in it as well as all Confraternities which were canonically erected in that church, namely those of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, St Joseph, The Guardian Angel, The Blessed Franco, St Louis Gonzaga and St Louis, King of France.[65]

There is ,so far, no evidence of any picture or statue of Our Lady of ,Mount Carmel being carried during that procession, before 1657. However, a statue of this Madonna was taken out processionally on July 16 and July 23 of that year. An account book of the Confraternity of Our Lady of Mount Carmel reports the expenditure of six tari for the refreshments of wine and biscuits given to eight men who carried the statue during those two processions.[66]

Perhaps it may be interesting to know that, till the year 1790, besides the solemn procession of July 16, another procession of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel took place in Valletta. It was organized by the Confraternity of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and held on July 23, the octave day of the feast. While !between the years 1657-1790, three different statues of the same Madonna were used.[67] Two of them belonged to that Confraternity, the first of which was probably brought from Rome about the year 1657. Till 1779, it was this statue that was carried out processionally on July 16 and 23. However, in 1780, the Confraternity brought a new statue from Naples, making use of it for the first time in the above-mentioned processions of that same year.

The site, where to place throughout the year, this second statue turned out to be an apple of discord between the Friars and the members of the Confraternity. The latter pretended a prominent place in the church, while the former were ready to give them enough space by the sacristy door. Wherefore the Friars decided to have a statue of their own and, in 1781, they succeeded in getting a very beautiful and devout statue of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. Its sculptor and place of origin are unknown. The name of its benefactor, however, is available, namely, the Rev. Mag. Angelo Chircop. Ever since 1781, this statue has been carried out during the July 16 procession. The members of the Confraternity, on their part, used to carry their own statue till 1790, during the procession held on July 23.[68]

On the 12th October 1790, the Confraternity of Our Lady of Mount Carmel made a written petition to the Friars, wherein they suggested a novena preceding the feast of July 16 instead of the procession of July 23, under the following conditions: During that novena, starting on July 7, there was to be a daily high Mass with the exposition of the Blessed Sacrament and a sermon on the Virgin Mary during the same mass. The evening service was to include the Salve Regina, the Litany and sacramental benediction with the pyx. The stipends for these services were to be one scudo for the mass, four tart for the sermon and another four tart for the evening religious function. Moreover, their statue was to be brought out in the church for public veneration on the first day of the Christmas novena and be carried out in procession on the first festive day of Christmas and on the last day of the ‘Forty Hours Adoration' devotion. Two days later, on the 14th October 1790, the whole community consented unanimously to their petition and conditions.[69]

It was then the turn of the Confraternity of St Joseph, erected in the Carmelite church of Valletta, to submit to the Friars their earnest desire to have the statue of Our Lady of Mount Carmel participating in the procession of St Joseph, on their patron saint's day. On the 16th March 1793, after consulting himself with the Community, the Vice-Prior Fr Albert Camilleri informed the Confraternity of the positive decision of the Friars. There was no objection on their part so long as the necessary expenses would be paid by the Confraternity itself.[70]

A last word about the Valletta feast of July 16 goes to the merit of the Knights of Malta, who contributed with money donations for the expenses incurred by the Friars on that occasion. The names of Ricunda, Argotti, Rabenstein, Grugnet and the Grand Master himself are recorded in the account-books of the Valletta Carmelite Priory.[71] On their part, the members of that Priory showed the Knights every respect. In fact, besides the Bishop and the Inquisitor of Malta, they used to invite for the feast the Grand Master, the Grand Crosses and many other Knights of the Order. The Grand Master never failed to attend and was always welcomed. To honour his visit they used to wear not only the brown habit, which they used when welcoming the Bishop, but also their white mantle.[72]

Another Carmelite Community solemnizing the feast of July 16, during the 17th and 18th centuries, is that of Mdina. A month after they took residence in the Old City, in 1659, they celebrated that feast with music.[73] It is somewhat difficult to know whether they also held an external procession on that same year. Anyhow, we have reason to believe that they did have it the following year. The church's construction was at a standstill. Labourers were employed in smoothening the street and in carrying out adjustment for the feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel.[74] Certainly, in 1670 the feast was celebrated with great pomp and splendour. As the cupola was not yet ready, they hired a large canvas to cover the open space, white-washed the church and the chapels, placed the main altar as well as the altars of two other chapels, and brought and hung the pictures of their old church in the new one.[75]

THE FEAST OF THE ANNUNCIATION OF THE VIRGIN MARY

In the Holy Land, the Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel were imbued with a particular devotion towards the mystery of Mary's Annunciation of her divine motherhood. Then when forced to migrate to Europe, [p.294] they did not fail to bring with them and spread everywhere that devotion. ,Many Carmelite Provinces, especially in Sicily, had even chosen the Annunciation as the principal feast of their Order.[76] Therefore, it was only natural for the Carmelites in Malta, offspring as they were of the Sicilian Province of St Angelo, to solemnize originally the feast of the Annunciation.

In this respect the Community of St Leonard's district, outside Rabat, deserves a special mention. On March 25, the Chapter of the Cathedral as well as the Secular and Regular Clergy used to go processionally to this church, followed by a great number of people. High Mass was then celebrated by the hebdomadal canon of the Cathedral Chapter which included also a panegyric delivered by the Lenten preacher of the same Cathedral.[77]

When in 1609, July 16 was chosen as the principal feast of the Carmelite Order,[78] the long fostered devotion to the Annunciation suffered a great loss in its popularity among the Sicilian Carmelites. This explains why between the years 1654 and 1766, out of their sixty three newly-founded convents, only five were dedicated to that Marian mystery. Priority was given to the other title of Our Lady of !Mount Carmel. Thirty two new convents were dedicated to the ]Mount Carmel Madonna during the same period.[79]

Consequently the Annunciation became rather unpopular also among the Maltese Carmelites, but fortunately not a total loss. Besides naming a chapel after her, the Carmelites of Valletta celebrated the feast of March 25, which had been founded in their church by Fra Fabrizio Cagliola in 1665. In a notarial deed, made in Scicli on the 21st March of that year, this Knight of St John left the Carmelites of Valletta an annual legacy of twelve scudi. The money was intended for the daily needs of a lighted lamp in this chapel as well as for the annual celebration of the feast of March 25, with Vespers, a High Mass with music and six low Masses.[80]

The feast of the Annunciation is still solemnly celebrated by the Carmelite Community of Mdina, whose church is dedicated to the Virgin Mary under this title. However, we are short of information of its solemnization among them, during the two centuries under consideration. We were only lucky to discover that it was first celebrated in the new church, on the 25th March 1676. For the occasion the Friars hired the tapestry from Burmola's church and from the Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament at Valletta.[81]

OTHER MARIAN FEASTS

Previously, the same Community had hired the tapestry six months before, for the feast of the Madonna della Rocca, that is for the festivity of the Nativity of Our Lady. This feast of September 8 was celebrated for the first time in the new church of Mdina in 1675.[82]

[p.295] It would be too long and perhaps somewhat tedious to speak minutely of all the various feasts of Our Lady, which were celebrated throughout the Maltese Carmelite Province, during the 17th and 18th centuries. So, it is intended to give here only a sketchy description of most of them, starting with the Assumption or, as it is popularly known in Our Islands, the feast of 'Santa Marija'.

This feast was celebrated by the Carmelites of Valletta with a Marian service during the whole fortnight that preceded the 15th of August. Within the service, a sermon was daily delivered on that privilege of Our Lady.[83] On their part, the faithful showed their enthusiasm towards this feast, especially by offering candles to be lighted in the chapel of the Assumption. An account book estimated the candles offered on the 9th August 1688 at 24 tari.[84]

Another Marian feast was that of Our Lady of Good Health. On the 2nd September 1656, Catherine Santa-Maura left as dowry to her chapel bearing that title of Our Lady, inside the Carmelite church of Valletta, the sum of one hundred and fifty scudi. The money had to be spent on the annual celebration of the feast of Our Lady of Good Health, including sung Vespers and a High Mass.[85]

The Spanish Knights of Malta seem to have had a particular devotion to Our Lady of Itria. In her honour and in the chapel named after her, they celebrated annually her feast with great pomp and splendour, during August or September.[86] But perhaps far much greater was the feast of Our Lady of the Light, held in the same chapel of the Madonna of Itria by the Confraternity of Our Lady of the Light. In fact a novena preceded the feast which, till the year 1752, used to take place in May.[87]

Some details about the feast of Our Lady of Ransom, which was celebrated on the 24th September are now due. By a decree of the 22nd February 1696, Innocent XII inserted this feast in the universal liturgical calendar. Being a great devotee of this Madonna, the Aragonese Knight Fra Tiburtius Dolz sought by all means to introduce her devotion in the Carmelite church of Valletta. In fact, he defrayed all the expenses involved in setting up an altar in honour of the Madonna 'della Mercede' and adorned with sculptured works, golden or gilded objects, paintings and other ornamental equipment. It was placed in a corner of the lower dormitory of the convent, because all the chapels of the church had already their own altars. For its inauguration, on the 24th September 1705, a great feast was held in the presence of many renowned persons and a great number of people. Mass was then said on its altar for the first time.[88]

Later, the painting of Our Lady of Ransom, donated by Dolz, was transferred to the chapel of Our Lady of Pilar,[89] and soon the devotion of the Madonna 'della Mercede' set all hearts on fire. The Grand Master himself, Anthony Manoel de Vilhena, through the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Fra Rosalbo Cavalcanti, gave the Friars three hundred golden scudi to celebrate annually her feast in that chapel. Specifically, the money had to serve for the embellishment of her chapel and altar, as well as for an [p.296] annual High Mass, with Deacon and Subdeacon, on the day of the Solemnity and for her altar according to the intention of the Grand Master Vilhena himself.[90]

The feast of Our Lady of Loreto, was also solemnly celebrated in the Valletta Carmelite church.[91]

THE CARMELITE THIRD ORDER AND MARIAN CONFRATERNITIES

The Marian Carmelites, in their zeal to spread and ever-increase the devotion towards Our Lady, adopted the enrolment of the faithful into their Third Order for the Laity and other Marian Confraternities, especially that of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, to serve their purpose.

THE CARMELITE THIRD ORDER

By the end of the first decade of the 16th century, the Carmelite Third Order for the Laity had already established itself in Malta. In fact, in 1511, an Izolda Casaha is described as its Prioress.[92] During the following years, many names of devotees of Our Lady appear in it, especially in the Vittoriosa district.[93] Nevertheless it was only in the 17th and 18th centuries that it developed in almost the form we know it today. Within the period 1615-1778, six Rules were at least published for this Third Order.[94]

Common to all those Rules was the Marian spirit with which the Tertiaries had to be imbued, as could be seen from the following obligations, namely:

- to keep abstinence from meat on all Wednesdays in honour of Our Lady and to gain the Sabbatine Privilege;

- to fast on the vigils of the feasts of Our Lady;

[p.297] - to confess and receive Holy Communion frequently, especially on the festive days of Our Lady;

- to wear day and night Mary's habit, that is the Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel;

- to say the canonical office, or else the Hours of Our Lady, or, if that was impossible, a definite number of Our Father and Hail Mary, distributed over the various canonical hours;

- to observe chastity according to their state of life, on the example of the Virgin Mary;

- to honour Our Lady with some particular devotion and good deed on all Wednesdays and Saturdays;

- to attend their monthly meeting and to take part in the monthly procession of the Confraternity of Our Lady of Mount Carmel ;

- to exert themselves in virtues as faithful servants of the Lord and sons of Mary, whom they should entirely imitate.[95]

Besides these obligations, the Maltese Tertiaries, according to Fr Lawrence Sammut, almost every Sunday were present for a sermon on Our Lady, intended also for all the devotees of Mary in general and particularly for those enrolled in the Brown Scapular. Scapulars of Our Lady of Mount Carmel were distributed among the frequent participants.[96]

It is worth mentioning here the names of some 17th century Maltese Carmelite Tertiaries, namely, Agnes Farrugia of Żejtun, Marietta Scerri of Balzan and Helen Zammit of Birkirkara.[97] The villages, whence these tertiaries hailed, provide a typical pattern portraying how far and wide the Carmelite Third Order was organised in ,Malta. The three ladies, just mentioned, bequeathed three onze for the celebration of the seven feasts of Our Lady, when high mass with the assistance of a deacon and a sub-deacon was to be sung. Another similar mass was to be celebrated on All Souls Day.[98]

The clothing of lay tertiaries and the taking of the vows were a normal procedure.[99] It is however interesting to note that on the 28th September 1761, a couple of Tertiaries on their admission to the Third Order, preferred to take ale o a religious name, quite different from the one given them at their Baptism. They called themselves Sister Theresa Balzan of Cospicua and Sister Mary Mifsud.[100]

THE CONFRATEIRiNITY OF OUR LADY OF MOUNT CARMEL

Another form of aggregation to the Carmelite Order is that of the Scapular Confraternity which, in 1606, was enriched by Paul V with many indulgences.[101] It is believed however, that the phenomenal growth of the devotion of the Scapular, and consequently the great demand of membership in that Confraternity, was due to the "Sabbatine" Bull.[102] A decree of the Sacred Congregation of the Inquisition, issued on the 20th January 1613, permitted the Carmelites to preach to the faithful that the Blessed Virgin would assist the souls of deceased Brothers and members of thee [p.298] Confraternity, especially on Saturday, the day which the Church dedicates to the Blessed Virgin.[103]

The Maltese Carmelites introduced the Confraternity in their church of Valletta, on August 9, 1621.[104] Its Marian spirit and aim is already evident from the first article of its Statutes. It says explicitly that the Confraternity was erected to honour with the greatest zeal, God and his Blessed Mother under the title of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. Its aim was to kindle even more in its members the devotion towards Our Heavenly Patroness.[105]

The elections of the Rector and other Officials were preceded, besides the "Veni Creator", by the Hail Mary and the invocation: "Mother and Beauty of Carmel, our Protectress, pray for us".[106] In taking then possession of his Office, the Rector recited a formula wherein he declared himself a most unworthy servant of the iMother of God and his earnest desire to serve her loyally and to do his best to see that his confreres would also serve her with all their zeal.[107]

Article 31 prescribed a low mass with general Holy Communion on the feast of Our Lady of Sorrows, followed in the evening by the recital of Compline, a sermon and sacramental benediction.[108] But on the feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, as the members were to take part in the solemn procession wearing their religious habit, no other religious function was held on that evening. Instead, another low mass was prescribed to substitute somehow the evening services.[109]

Wednesday was chosen for the weekly meeting of the Confraternity, starting on the first Wednesday of November till the Wednedsay in Holy Week, and resuming on the 1st Wednesday after Pentecost till the last Wednesday but one preceding the feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, July 16.[110] Moreover, on every second Sunday, the members were to hear Mass and receive Holy Communion in the Oratory, after which a second Low Mass was said. Then, they had to accompany processionally the Blessed Sacrament from the Oratory into the church.[111] Before and after the procession, however, they were to recite the Offices of Our Lady and of the Dead, as well as to meditate for a short time on a subject chosen by their Chaplain.[112]

On the 10th July 1622, the Friars granted to the Confraternity two rooms within the convent. A third room was granted them twenty years later, on the 16th May 1642.[113] However, so that even female members could have access to that place, permission was asked to build an Oratory outside the convent. As the Friars did not find any objection, the General of the Order, Mario Venturini together with his Secretary Ludovico Malaspina sent their written consent, on the 19th May 1655.[114]

It was through this Confraternity, that the Maltese Carmelites first started the procession of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in Valletta, in 1622, [p.299] and for more than one hundred and fifty years (1780), kept making use of its statues during that procession.[115]

Later, another Confraternity was also erected in the Carmelite church of Mdina. The members had their own Oratory and looked after the feast of Our Lady of (Mount Carmel. Their first meeting was held on the 18th June 1664, when Andrew Castelletti was elected its first Rector.[116]

OTHER MARIAN INSTITUTIONS

During the period under consideration, there were another two Marian institutions in the Carmelite church of Valletta. One of these was a Confratrenity named after Our Lady of the Light. Its foundation date is not known, but it was certainly erected before the year 1746. In fact, a notarial deed of the 11th October of that year, drew similar obligations for the members of the Confraternity of the Guardian Angel like those already assumed by the members of the Confraternity of the Light. They were to pay for the religious services held on the altar of Our Lady of Good Health in the same way as the Confraternity of Our Lady of the Light used to pay for the services rendered on the altar of Our Lady of Itria.[117] A second mention of the Confraternity of the Light could be found in May 1752, when its members paid for the consumption of oil before the picture of that Madonna, the sum of one onza and twenty-four tari.[118]

This Confraternity no longer exists and any information about its extinction is, so far, unavailable.

The second institution was a Marian Sodality with a very strange name: "The Sodality of the four farthings", a name which was derived from the four farthings its members were to pay monthly for the celebration of masses and prayers after their death. Certainly, it played a very important part in the history of the devotion of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in our Islands. It is reckoned, that it was through this Sodality that the Scapular devotion was mostly enhanced.[119]

In 1696, it was already existing. An account-book registered the amount of money collected on the 31st December 1696, at six onze.[120] Later, however, it received a new lease of life and met with unexpected good-luck. As a matter of fact, on January 1796, the collection from Valletta only amounted to forty four onze, fifteen tari and two grana.[121]

A Carmelite Friar used to go daily to a city or village, encouraging every family to be a member of that Sodality and collecting the four farthings of those already enrolled. He did his best to have all the villages and cities visited once a month. The main intention of his visit was to scatter far and wide the devotion of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, distributing Scapulars and images of this Madonna. Fortunately, his labour bore abundant fruit. There was no person in our Islands who ignored or did not cherish an affection for the Mother and Queen of Carmel and for the Carmelites themselves.[122]

[p.300] OTHER DEVOTIONAL PRACTICES

It is hoped that the present study has shown how the Carmelites have contributed largely to the development and expansion of the Marian devotion in Malta, during the 17th and 18th centuries. The building of new churches dedicated to Our Lady, the solemn feasts they celebrated in her honour, the erection of the Carmelite Third Order as well as of the Confraternity of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and other Marian Sodalities, all these are clear and eloquent proofs of their Marian spirit and apostolate.

Special importance was given to the devotion of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, because in those years the Brown Scapular together with the Rosary, was the most widespread Marian devotion in the Church. The feast itself of Our Lady of Mount Carmel was introduced in the whole Church in 1726, ten years after that of the Rosary (1716). The Carmelites, however, had chosen July 16 as the principal feast of the Order for over a century before (1609). And the Maltese Carmelites, through their Confraternity of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, started to celebrate that feast with a solemn procession in Valletta, in 1622, being thus the forerunners of any procession which was later introduced in the New City.

Finally, the old votive offerings hanging in the Carmelite churches and chapels, the enrolment in the Brown Scapular of even children at their first Holy Communion, if not at Baptism, the general practice of naming a member of the family after Our Lady of Mount Carmel, the custom of calling streets after that Marion name, these and other factors are evident proofs of the indefatigable labour of the Maltese Carmelites to enhance individual, family end national devotion towards Our Lady, especially under the title of Our Lady of Mount Carmel.


* Particular Abbreviations
CCV: Carmelite Convent, Valletta
CCN: Carmelite Convent, Notabile

[1] In 1282, the Prior General of the Carmelite Order, Peter of Millau, in a letter to King Edward I of England requesting the royal protection, promises the prayers of the Brethren to "the Most Glorious Virgin ... to whose praise and glory the Order itself was specially instituted in parts beyond the sea" (Bullarium Carmelitanum; I, Rome 1715, 606-7). The Carmelite General Chapter of Montpellier, in 1287, begs "the prayers of the Glorious Virgin Mary, Mother of Jesus, in whose service and honour our Institute of Mt Carmel was founded" (Acta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Fratrum B.V. Mariae de Monte Carmelo; I, Rome 1912, 7). The same idea is echoed in papal documents. A bull of Clement V begins: "Your Holy Order, divinely instituted in honour of Blessed Mary, the Glorious Virgin . . . ( Bull. Carm., I, 55).

[2] "Colui che formulò il detto 'Carmelus totus marianus' fù un genio d'artista, perché seppe in tre pennellate identificare e programmare il Carmelo" (Giovanni Gava-Angelo Coan OC, Carmelo: profilo, storia, uomini e cose, Rome 1951, 41).

[3] ". . . lo spirito del Carmelo è così eminentemente mariano, che la sua nota essenziale e caratteristica, la sua personalità e proprietà costitutiva, e servire Maria . (Gava-Coan, op. cit., 41). "Tribus ergo elementis vita vera Carmelitana componitur: studiis vacandi Deo, animarum zelo, B. Mariae Virginis singulari amore" (Vita Carmelitana: doctrina conventus Magistrorum Novitiorum Ordinis Carmelitarum, Rome 1933, 87). "Le Costituzioni (Carmelitane) lo dicono Mariano per antonomasia. e per significare che la relazione alla Madonna e la ragione stessa della sua esistenza" (Telesforo Maria Cioli OC, Fondamenti di Spiritualità Carmelitana, Rome 1951, 162). "... una adeguata conoscenza e amore dello spirito mariano, che ha sempre caratterizzato il Carmelo" (Kiliano Healy OC, Devozione alla Beata Vergine del Carmelo, Rome 1969, 3, a circular letter by the Prior General of the Carmelite Order).

[4] Leo J. Walter OC, op. cit., Foreword; Joachim Smeth OC, The Carmelites: A History of the Brothers of Our Lady of Mt Carmel, Darien-Illinois 1976, Vol. 2, 227. Confer also the speech of Pope Paul VI addressed to the General Chapter of the Discalced Carmelite Friars in June 1967 (Acta Apostolicae Sedis, 59 (1967), 777 ff), as well as his address to the Carmelites of the Ancient Observance published in Analecta Ordinis Carmelitarum, Vol. 27, Rome 1968, 217.

[5] Arthur Bonnici, History of the Church in Malta, Vol. 2, Malta 1968, 68.

[6] Serafin Abela OC, L-Ewwel Karmelitani f'Malta u l-Ewwel Knisja u Kunvent tagħhom ‘Il- Lunzjata l-Qadima' (1418-1569), Rabat-Malta 1976, 3-8; Anastasju Cuschieri OC, "L-Euuel Cunvent tal Carmnitani f'Malta" in Ir-Reġina tal Carmelu, 8 (1914), 126, and "Il Patrijiet tal Cunvent tax Xaghra jeu tal Lunzjata il qadima", Ibid., 8 (1917), 240.

[7] Daniel a Virgine Maria OC, Speculum Carmelitanum, Antwerp 1680, Vol. 1, 170, No 752.

[8] CCV, Gabreo A, IV; Romeo Grech OC, Il-Bażilika Santwarju tal-Karmnu fir-raba' mitt sena tat-twaqqif tagħha: Malta 1970, 4; Lorenzo M. Sammut OC, Breve storia della devozione di Maria SS. del Carmine nell'Isola di Malta, Malta 1951, 9-10, and Is-Santwarju tal-Karmnu, Valletta, Malta 1952, 17-18. Direttorju tal-Provinċja San Elija ta' l-Aħwa tal-Vergni Mqaddsa tal-Karmnu: Malta 1981, 9.

[9] Romeo Grech OC, op. cit., 3, 6-12; Lor. M. Sammut OC, Breve Storia, 10-11; Is-Santwarju tal-Karmnu, 19-22; Direttorju Prov. S. Elija, 10.

[10] Lor. M. Sammut OC,Is-Santwarju tal-Karmnu, 19-20, 36.

[11] Ibid., 36-38; Romeo Grech OC, Il-Bażilika Santwarju, 13-14; Serafin Abela OC, "Il-Kwadru" in Mitt sena mill-Inkurunazzjoni: 1881-1981, (s.n.t.), 12-15; Anastasio M. Ronci OC, Brevi cenni sul Santuario e sull'augusta icone della Prodigiosa Vergine sotto il titolo del Carmelo venerata nella città Valletta, Malta 1833, 11. With regard to the solemn crowning held on the 15th July 1881, confer the same authors just quoted, i.e. Ronci, op. cit., 15-73; Lor. M. Sammut OC, op. cit., 99-130; Romeo Grech OC, op. cit., 13, 15-16, and Felicjan Bezzina OC, "L- Inkurunazzjoni fil-gurnali 100 sena ilu" in Mitt sena mill-Inkurunazzjoni, 23-28.

[12] Henricus Esteve OC, De valore spirituali devotions S. Scapularis, Rome 1953, 50-59; G. Philips, "L'opposition protestante a la Mariologie" in Marianum, 11, Rome 1949, 474; Bartolome Xiberta OC, De Visione Sancti Simonis Stock, Rome 1950, 42; Joachim Smeth OC, op. cit., Vol. 2, 227.

[13] Joachim Smet OC, op. cit., 225.

[14] Lor. M. Sammut OC, Is-Santwarju. 126-128, 136-141; Romeo Grech OC, Il-Bażilika, 13-16.

[15] CCV, Gabreo A, 206r-v, 277r.

[16] These two chapels were dedicated one to the Crucifix, known also as St Agnes chapel, and the other to St Joseph. Confer Lor. M. Sammut OC, Is-Santwarju, 39-42, 51-54.

[17] This chapel was ‘juspatronatus' of the noble Santa - Maura family. In 1746, however, with the consent of the heiress of this chapel, Rosa Micallef, the picture of Our Lady of Good Health was removed and was substituted by a painting of the Guardian Angel, in whose honour a confraternity was erected two years later (CCV, Gabreo A, 275r-v, 294r-v; Lor. M. Sammut OC, Is-Santwarju, 44-48).

[18] Lor. M. Sammut, op. cit., 47.

[19] A Notarial deed stipulated on the 12th October 1604, states that this chapel had been then recently built and was a ‘juspatronatus' of Domenico de Napoli's family (CCV, Gabreo A, 190v, on 270r there is however the following entry: "Quest'altare per esser scommodo fu levato nel Priorato del P. Massimo Balsani, però restò il solito quadro").

[20] We know that this chapel was previously dedicated to the Assumption of Our Lady. This results from an account-book of the Valletta Convent (CCV, Lib. Introit, I, p. 64). It is here recorded that on the 9th August 1668, twenty four tarì worth of candles were given for the feast of the Assumption to be celebrated in her chapel. Regarding the change of this chapel's name and its dedication to St Elias in 1730, confer Lor. M. Sammut OC, Is-Santwarju, 56.

[21] This chapel was a ‘juspatronatus' of the De Alboranti family (CCV, Gabreo A, 259r-260r). On the 15th November 1674, John Baptist, Ortensia and Clara De Alboranti gave orders to have included in the picture of Our Lady of Itria the figures of St Mary Magdalen de Pazzi and St Catherine of Siena (Ibid., 260r).

[22] CCV, Lib. Introiti III, pp. 30, 46; Lor. M. Sammut, Is-Santwarju, 57. In 1806, the confraternity of Blessed Franco OC was erected in this chapel (CCV, Libro Pro-poste I, 117r).

[23] This chapel was a ‘juspatronatus' of Fra Jerome de Fosses, a knight of St John (CCV, Gabreo A, 255r, 275r), and till 1796 was still dedicated to the Madonna of Pilar (CCV, Libro Proposte I, 87r). The Castilian Knights of St John used to have their religious services and private devotions therein (Lor. M. Sammut OC, Is-Santwarju, 60, 185).

[24] CCV. Libro Proposte I, 87r. For the donator of the painting, Dolz, confer CCV, Gabreo A, 210r.

[25] Lor. M. Sammut OC, Is-Santwarju, 66.

[26] Joachim Smet OC, The Carmelites, Vol. I, 128, 158; Ludovico Saggi OC, La Congregazione Mantovana dei Carmelitani sine alla morte del B. Battista Spagnoli (1516), Rome 1954, 131-132, 201-202.

[27] Lor. M. Sammut OC, op. cit., 68.

[28] NAM, R. 504/9, 9r: "Concessio facta Ordini Carmelitarum ab D. Fr. Thoma Gargallo, Episcopo".

[29] NAM, R. 12/21, 764r; R. 12/22, 64r; Direttorju Prov. S. Elija, 28.

[30] NLM, Ms. 18, p. 397; Arthur Bonnici, History of the Church in Malta, Vol. 2, 41.

[31] NLM, Ms. 18, p. 397.

[32] Bullarium Carmelitanum II, 510 513, 710.

[33] Confer Relazione della Diocesi di Malta con occasione della prima visita di Mons Vescovo M. de Molina, 236r, quoted in Direttorju Prov. S. Elija. 14, 29; Il-Karmelu, Lulju/Sett. 1981, 29, 33.

[34] NLM, Ms. 18, p. 397

[35] Idem.

[36] NLM, Ms. 751, p. 3: "Notizia della fondazione del Convento de PP. Carmelitani della Vittoriosa".

[37] Serafin Abela OC, L-Ewwel Karmelitani f'Malta, 49-51.

[38] CCN, Gabreo II, p. 6.

[39] Ibid.. p. 7; Gabreo I, p. 51; ACM, Ms. 24, 1067r; CCN, Liber Exitus: 1633-1672, pp. 791, 793, 795, 797; and Esito della Fabrica: 1660-1673, p. 23.

[40] This Brief was issued on the 22nd December 1666, confer Bullarium Carmelitanum II, 545 and CCN, Gabreo II, p. 8.

[41] CCN, Esito della Fabrica: 1673-1697, p. 41.

[42] Ibid., D. 40; Libro dell'Inventario: 1697-1738, p. 2; Lor. M. Sammut OC, Is-Santwarju, 260.

[43] CCN, Libro dell'Inventario: 1782-1825, pp. 42, 51; Liber Exitus: 1795-1826, 131.

[44] CCN, Libro dell'Inventario: 1782-1825, pp. 60, 74.

[45] CCN, Libro dell'Inventario: 1740-1781, p. 6; Esito della Fabrica: 1673-1697, p. 193.

[46] CCN, Libro dell'Inventario: 1697-1738, pp. 1, 2, 23, 158, 208; Liber Exitus: 1795-1826, p. 131.

[47] CCN, Liber Exitus: 1596-1634, p. 202.

[48] ACM, VP 1656-59, on the 17th April 1656.

[49] Idem, and Ms. 181, p. 70.

[50] ACM, Ms. 60, pp. 32, 156; Ms. 79,pp. 61, 115; Deliberationes Capitulares, T. 3, pp. 6, 244; Ms. 11, p. 689; Ms. 12, p. 601.

[51] ACM, Ms. 79, p. 61.

[52] Arthur Bonnici, op. cit., Vol. 2, 140.

[53] Serafin Abela OC, op. cit., 13.

[54] Ibid., 12.

[55] Ibid., 13, and CCN, Esito della Fabrica: 1697-1760, pp. 274, 288, 289, 293.

[56] Bullarium Carmelitanum II, 351-352.

[57] Acta Capitulorum Generalium, Vol. 2, Rome 1934, 20.

[58] Constitutiones et decreta tam pro ref ormandis bonarum litterarum studiis quam pro reparanda vitae reqularis observantia, Cremona 1593, 83.

[59] Valerius Hoppenbrouwers, Devotio mariana in Ordine Fratrum B.M.V. de Monte Carmelo a medio saeculo XVI usque ad finem saeculi XIX, Rome 1960, 148.

[60] CCN, Gabreo I, D. 6; Serafin Abela OC, op. cit., 10-11, 51.

[61] Serafin Abela OC, op. cit., 49.

[62] CCN, Liber Exitus: 1596-1634, p. 202; Serafin Abela OC, op. cit., 12.

[63] CCN, Liber Exitus: 1596-1634, pp. 211, 212; Serafin Abela, op. cit., 12, 17.

[64] Lor. M. Sammut OC, Is-Santwarju. 154.

[65] CCV, Libro delle Proposte II, p. 89; Lor. M. Sammut OC, op. cit., 154-155.

[66] Lor. M. Sammut OC, op. cit., 72.

[67] Ibid., 144; CCV, Libro Proposte I, 64r.

[68] CCV, Ibid., 33v; Lor. M. Sammut OC, op. cit., 72-78, 144. The statue of 1657 is at present in the oratory of the confraternity of Our Lady of Mount Carmel at Valletta next to the Carmelite Sanctuary-Basilica. The other statue of 1780 was donated by the confraternity to the Carmelites of St .Julian's on the 1st February 1890. This statue is carried in the procession held annually two Sundays after the feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel.

[69] CCV, Libro delle Proposte I, 64r 197. v.

[70] Ibid, 77r.

[71] CCV, Lib. Introit, III, p. 95; IV, p. 83; Lor. M. Sammut OC, op. cit., 188-189.

[72] CCV, Libro delle Proposte I, 17r-v; Lor. M. Sammut OC, op. cit.197.

[73] CCN, Lib. Exitus: 1663-1672, pp. 791, 795; Confer also Direttorju, 15.

[74] CCN, Esito della Fabrica: 1660-1673, p. 23.

[75] Ibid., pp. 161, 159, 158.

[76] Augustinus M. Forcadell OC, Commemoratio Solemnis Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo, Rome 1951, 17-19; V. Hoppenbrouwers, op. cit., 233; Manuel Garcia Calahorra, Breve compendio del origen y antiguedad de la sagrada religion del Carmen, Madrid 1766, 98 cf.

[77] ACM, Ms. 24, 1067r; Serafin Abela OC, op. cit., 11, 17; Arthur Bonnici, on. cit., Vol. I, 102.

[78] Confer Note 57 of the present study.

[79] V. Hopperbrouwers, op.cit., 233, and footnote 17.

[80] CCV, Gabrea A, 206r-v, 277r.

[81] CCN, Esito del la Fabrica: 1673-1697, p. 27.

[82] Ibid., p. 23.

[83] Lor. M. Sammut OC, op. cit., 55. 87. Ibid., 57; CCV, Lib. Introit, III,

[84] CCV, Libr. Introit, I, p. 64. pp. 30, 46.

[85] CCV, Gabreo A, 275r. 88. CCV, Gabreo A, 210r.

[86] Lor. M. Sammut OC, op. cit., 58, 89. CCV, Libro delle Pro poste I, 87r. 185.

[87] Ibid., 57; CCV, Lib. Introit, III, pp. 30,46.

[88] CCV, Gabreo A, 210r.

[89] CCV, Libro delle Proposte I, 87r.

[90] CCV, Gabreo A, 293r.

[91] Lor. M. Sammut OC, op. cit., 66.

[92] The Third Order for the Laity was canonically erected by Apostolic Letters Cum nulla (1452) and Dum attenta (1476) of Popes Nicholas V and Sixtus IV, respectively. On March 12, 1455, Blessed John Soreth drew up a Rule for the Tertiaries similar to that of the Friars. A critical edition of the Cum nulla papal letters has been published by Ludovico Saggi in Analecta Carmelitana 17 (1952), 191-194. For the Dum attenta confer Bullarium Carm. I, 319 if. For Soreth's Rule, confer Analecta Carmelit. 3 (1914-16), 263-265. With regard to Izolda confer CCN, Reg. Actorum Orig, 11.

[93] See note 28 of the present study.

[94] These Rules were the following: - Miguel de la Fuente, Regla y modo di vida de los hermanos terceros.. . Toledo 1615.
- Maruggi Elia, "Regola e Statuti per i Terziari" in Tesoro spirituale della Religione della gloriosa Vergine del Carmine..., Catania 1624, 166-184.
- Stratius Theodorus, Opusculum Regularum et Constitutionum pro Tertiariis utriusque sexus Ordinis Carmelitarum Antiquae Observantiae Regularis . . . , Roncilione 1637.
- Jacomelli Aemilius, Regula Fratrum et Sororum Tertii Ordinis Beatissimae Virginis Mariae de Monte Carmelo. .. , Rome 1678.
- Tartaglia Ferdinandus Statuta seu brevis explicatio Regulae Fratrum et Sororum Tertii Ordinis B.V.M. de Monte Carmelo, (s.l.) 1679. This is not a Rule, but only Statutes or rather a brief explanation of Jacomelli's Rule.
- Ioseph a Iesu Maria, Thesouro carmelitano manifesto e offerecido aos irmaos et irmas de veneravel Ordem Terceyra... de Dios, Senhora do Carmo Lisbona
1705.
- Miguel de Azevedo, Regra da Ordem Terceira da Mai Santissima e soberana Senhora do Monte do Carmo, Lisbona 1778.

[95] V. Hoppenbrouwers, op. cit., 121-126.

[96] Lor. M. Sammut OC, op. cit., 159.

[97] CCN, Ex Actis Not. Jo. Lucae Mamo, die XVIII Ind. 1644 quoted by Serafin Abela OC, op. cit., 52, note 24.

[98] Serafin Abela OC, op. cit., 51.

[99] CCV, Lib. Introit, III, p. 48.

[100] Ibid., pp. 91, 114.

[101] Bullarium Carm. II, 851-852.

[102] Joachim Smet OC, op. cit., 223.

[103] Bullarium Carm. II, 601.

[104] Manuale degli Esercizi di Pietà soliti praticarsi dai Confratelli del Ven.do Sodalizio della B.V. Maria sotto il titolo del Monte Carmelo di Valleta, Malta (Hamrun) 1930, 118; pages 106-177 give the "Statuto della Confraternità della B.V. del Carmelo di Valletta".

[105] Ibid.. 118.

[106] Ibid., 134-135.

[107] lbid., 137.

[108] Ibid., 132.

[109] Idem and 127.

[110] Ibid., 130.

[111] Ibid., 130-131.

[112] CCV, Gabreo A, 52v.

[113] Ibid., 51r, 53v.

[114] Ibid., 54v.

[115] Confer Notes Nos 64, 67, 68 of the present study.

[116] Direttorju tal-Provinċja ta' San Elija, 15.

[117] CCV, Gabreo A, 286v.

[118] CCV, Lib. Introit, III, p. 30.

[119] Lor. M. Sammut OC, op. cit., 198.

[120] CCV, Lib. Introit, I, p. 133.

[121] CCV, Lib. Introit, IV, p. 111.

[122] Lor. M. Sammut OC, op. cit., 200.